Garry Kasparov, in full Garri Kimovich Kasparov, original name Garri Weinstein or Harry Weinstein, (born April 13, 1963, Baku, Azerbaijan, U.S.S.R. [now Baku, Azerbaijan]), Soviet-born chess master who became the world chess champion in 1985. Kasparov was the youngest world chess champion (at 22 years of age) and the first world chess champion to be defeated by a supercomputer in a competitive match.
Kasparov was born to a Jewish father and an Armenian mother. He began playing chess at age 6, by age 13 was the Soviet youth champion, and won his first international tournament at age 16 in 1979. Kasparov became an international grandmaster in 1980. From 1973 to 1978 he studied under former world champion Mikhail Botvinnik.
In 1993 Kasparov and the English grandmaster Nigel Short left FIDE and formed a rival organization, the Professional Chess Association (PCA). In response, FIDE stripped the title of world champion from Kasparov, who defeated Short that same year to become the PCA world champion. In 1995 he successfully defended his PCA title against Viswanathan Anand of India; the PCA disbanded in 1996.
In 1996 Kasparov defeated a powerful IBM custom-built chess computer known as Deep Blue in a match that attracted worldwide attention. Kasparov and the team of Deep Blue programmers agreed to have a rematch in 1997. Deep Blue’s intelligence was upgraded, and the machine prevailed. Kasparov resigned in the last game of the six-game match after 19 moves, granting the win to Deep Blue. In 2000 Kasparov lost a 16-game championship match to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.
“Attackers may sometimes regret bad moves, but it is much worse to forever regret an opportunity you allowed to pass you by.”